Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) Project funded by the National Science Foundation, Division of Polar Programs (NSF PLR – 1425989), supplemented by NASA, and by the International Argo Program and the NOAA programs that contribute to it.


The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project (SOCCOM) is an NSF-sponsored program focused on unlocking the mysteries of the Southern Ocean and determining its influence on climate. Housed at Princeton University and administered by the Princeton Environmental Institute, SOCCOM draws on the strengths of teams of investigators across the U.S. as well as participating in international observational and simulation efforts.

SOCCOM’s mission is to drive a transformative shift in the scientific and public understanding of the role of the vast Southern Ocean in climate change and biogeochemistry.

SOCCOM is the world’s first large-scale biogeochemical Argo deployment. The project has increased the number of biogeochemical measurements made monthly in the Southern Ocean by 10-30 times (more in the Southern Hemisphere winter, when observations are scarcest), and the data are made freely available to the public. As of June 2019, over 135 SOCCOM floats are operating the Southern Ocean and have made over 3.5 million biogeochemical measurements, many in regions and at times of year never previously sampled.

SOCCOM is also unusual in combining an innovative observational program with a strong modeling program, and in integrating professional outreach partners into the program.


Prof. Russell serves as Lead of the modeling component (Theme 2) of the SOCCOM project and oversees all aspects related Modeling in SOCCOM. She and her group develop observationally-based metrics; run, analyze and assess ultrahigh resolution coupled climate models and Earth System Models; and have developed and are carrying out a Southern Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (SOMIP) with the goal of reducing uncertainties within climate projections.

SOCCOM Modeling projects include:

  • Observing System Simulation Experiments to inform deployment strategy
  • Carbon System Algorithm development and application to both new biogeochemical observations and earth system model simulations
  • Creating new assessment tools for newly available high-resolution Climate and Earth System Models
  • Design and implementation of Southern Ocean Wind Perturbation Experiment protocols in new simulations
  • Development of a Southern Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (SOMIP)
  • Development of standardized analysis packages and diagnostics to be shared with the global community.


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